PLANT NUTRITION IN THE ORCHARD BIOCENOSIS
In intensive organic horticulture, plant nutrition is a major issue in early spring when growth processes need to be intensified. The active growth of the vegetative mass, the degree of flowering and the full formation of fruit depend on an optimum supply of essential nutrients, especially nitrogen. The vast majority of approved fertilisers either contain no nitrogen at all or only a low nitrogen content. This is why nutritional optimisation is very relevant, and not only in organic production.
The existing myth that you can get high yields in a fruit orchard without garden maintenance unfortunately often leads to the death of excellent fruit tree saplings and frustrated gardeners. Modern high-yielding varieties of apple, cherry, plum, and pear - fruit trees need protection and nutrition just like all cultivated plants. If you are sick and tired of being overworked in the garden, the result is a pile of rotten and damaged fruit that still needs to be cleaned all the time - this is the offer for you.
BTU-CENTER practices individual approach to each orchard, depending on growing conditions, treatment technology, soil conditions, and diversity of plants\trees. We recommend different solutions for each case. Our approach bases on three steps - a healthy land, a healthy start and a healthy leaf.
The Healthy land step - is the main stage during which farmers carry out various agronomic activities when preparing the area for planting. It creates a favourable microflora, improve nutrition balance and accelerate the decomposition of the mulching material.
At this stage, we recommend the use of preparations such as Ecostern and Groundfix. For example, in preparing a new area for planting, we suggest to use the biodestructor ECOSTERN - by treating wild crop residues before ploughing. This product:
- allows to significantly accelerate residues decomposition;
- improves the structural composition and biological activity of the soil;
- provides the availability of nutrients.
The ECOSTERN contains the effective factor - spores and mycelium of fungi Trichoderma, as well as a set of spores and live cells of natural cellulose-destroying bacteria. Total number of viable cells from 2.5×109 CFU/cm3. The preparation approved for organic farming. The recommended rate of application in orchards is 1-2 L/ha. Methods of application: spraying, pre-planting soil treatment, in fertigation.
GROUNDFIX is a biofertilizer for PK-mobilization and N-fixation. This product:
✔ allows for a significant increase in the utilization rate of the applied mineral fertilizers through the action of beneficial microorganisms;
✔ allows the mobilization of inaccessible forms of phosphorus and potassium into readily available forms and therefore ensures a positive balance of nutrients in the soil.
Groundfix contains the effective factor - cells of bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum, Azotobacter chroococcum, Enterobacter, Paenibacillus polymyxa. Total number of viable cells from (0,5 - 1,5) ×109 CFU/cm3. The use of the product, either alone or in combination with other microbial preparations, not only improves the uptake of the applied mineral fertilizers, but allows to reduce their quantity. This, in turn, leads to cost savings and preservation of the biocenosis. The recommended rate of application in orchards is 3-5 L/ha 2-3 times in fertigation.
The Healthy Start step is about supporting treatment of planting or transplanting material (saplings) for better growing conditions. BTU-Centre offers the use of the biopreparation Mycofriend to stimulate the formation of mycorrhiza (fungal growth) on the root system of orchard plants\trees. The application of the biopreparation can improve plant development and nutrition in general. Remember: if the roots function well, the aboveground part will also develop normally.
MYCOFRIEND – is a complex mycorrhizal product that promotes mycorrhiza formation. Due to its effectiveness, the biopreparation has gained popularity in Ukraine and in the EU and Middle East countries like Kazakhstan. It contains a complex of mycorrhiza forming fungi - Glomus, Trichoderma; microorganisms supporting formation of mycorrhiza and plant rhizosphere: Streptomyces sp., Pseudomonas Fluorescens; phosphate-mobilizing bacteria: Bacillius Megaterium var. phosphaticum, Bacillus Subtilis, Bacillus Muciloginosus, Enterobacter sp, total number of viable cells (1.0-1.5) x108 CFU/ml. The recommended rate of application in orchards is 1-2 L/ha for fertigation and in-furrow. This product:
- increases the absorption area of the root system of plants due to the development of mycorrhiza;
- provides plants with balanced mineral nutrition;
- improves seed germination, survival of seedlings and saplings.
This product registered in the EU and may be used for organic agriculture. The biological is available in liquid and peat-based formulations with identical composition and titer to improve application manufacturability.
The Healthy Leaf step is about to how de-stress the plants after frost, pesticides and other impact as well as efficient use of plant protection products for foliar application. For these purposes, to increase the efficiency and duration of nutrition and plant protection products, enhance resistance to stress factors, we recommend to use our biological sticking agent – LIPOSAM and biostimulant AZOTOHELP.
The LIPOSAM is compatible in tank mixtures with all plant protection and nutrition products and has a number of technological advantages: it includes the properties of adhesive, adjuvant and antitranspirant. Because LIPOSAM is a natural adhesive and is safe for the environment and people, it is possible to use it during fruit ripening. The use of LIPOSAM prevents the active ingredient from being washed away and keeps it longer on the surface of the plant under rainy conditions, and promotes positive post-stress recovery of the plant (after frost, drought). In addition to demonstrating the effectiveness of use during the active phase of the growing season, this organic product contributes to improved fruit storage when used with biofungicides. The recommended rate of application in orchards is 1-2 L/ha for plants spraying during the growing season.
Laboratory studies of the retention capacity during phosphorus as indicative active substance flushing showed the high effectiveness of the preparation. For example, 60 minutes after washing off, the apple fruit treated with Liposam contained 24% an active substance while untreated fruit only 4%. The overall increase in phosphorus as an indicative active substance was 500%.
AZOTOHELP is a biostimulant based on N-fixing bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum. Total number of viable cells from 1,0×109 CFU/cm3. After application, it is also produces biologically active metabolites: amino acids, vitamins, phytohormones. The recommended rate of application in orchards is 0,7-1,5 L/ha in fertigation, 1,0-1,5 L/ha for saplings spraying. This product:
- allows actively fixe the molecular atmospheric nitrogen and enriches the soil up 60 kg/ha (average — 20 kg/ha). The number of field and scientific trials has proved the biostimulant's effectiveness.
- increases resistance of plants to stress factors;
- stimulates development of the root system and plants.
Due to Azotobacter’s universal character, AZOTOHELP is helpful for all kinds of crops, including cereals, vegetables, fruits and berries, as well as for technical and decorative plants. Besides producing nitrogen compounds, bacteria in the composition of AZOTOHELP release plant hormones, which enhance plants’ growth.
The BTU-CENTER offers farmers not just preparations, but solutions and opportunities so that, as a result, they get both additional profits and benefits to the ecosystem. Biological preparations improve biota's condition in the soil, allowing the plant to withstand challenges better. There is no resistance to biologicals. The role of biologicals is underestimated. The use of biopreparations is the most affordable and economically feasible tool for soil enrichment, plant nutrition and stimulation. Moreover, it is always a contribution to yields!
Oleksandr Ronsevych, BTU-CENTER Agronomist